Evidence-based medicine relies on using data to provide recommendations for effective treatment or prevention decisions. However, in many settings, effects may be heterogeneous across individuals, and within individuals over time. Healthcare providers are faced with the daunting task of making sequential therapeutic decisions having seen few patients with a given clinical history. Adaptive treatment strategies (ATS) operationalize the sequential decision-making process in the precision medicine paradigm, offering statisticians principled estimation tools that can be used to incorporate patient’s characteristics into a clinical decision-making framework so as to adapt the type, dosage or timing of intervention according to patients’ evolving needs.